Curriculum Vitae Hat


Full Name Dr Richard Allan Bartle


Born: 10th January, 1960
Ripon, North Yorkshire, England



Hornsea School, Eastgate, Hornsea, East Yorkshire
O-level: Mathematics
Computer Science
English Literature
Technical Drawing
A/O-level: Advanced Mathematics
A-level: Mathematics
General Studies
Essex University, Wivenhoe Park, Colchester, Essex
BSc: Computer Science (1st Class)
PhD: Artificial Intelligence


Marital: Married to Gail, 1985
Children: Jennifer (born 1990)
Madeleine (born 1994)




2005: Game Developers Choice Awards: First Penguin (now known as the Pioneers' Award)
2010: Game Developers Choice Online Awards: Online Game Legend
2013: GameIS Awards: Half-Life Achievement



1984-87: Lecturer, Department of Computer Science, Essex University
1987-2000: Programming Director, MUSE Ltd.
2000-2001: Head of Online Games, Gameplay plc.
2001-present: Independent consultant
2002-2003: Fellow, Department of Electronic Systems Engineering, Essex University
2003-2007: Principal Fellow, Department of Electronic Systems Engineering, Essex University
2004-2007: Visiting Professor, Department of Electronic Systems Engineering, Essex University
2008: Principal Fellow, Department of Computing and Electronic Systems, Essex University
2008: Visiting Professor, Department of Computing and Electronic Systems, Essex University
2009: Principal Fellow, School of Computer Science and Electronic Systems, Essex University
2009-2013: Visiting Professor, School of Computer Science and Electronic Systems, Essex University
2009-present: Senior Lecturer, School of Computer Science and Electronic Systems, Essex University
2013-present: Honorary Professor, School of Computer Science and Electronic Systems, Essex University
2017-present: Gästprofessor, Department of Game Design, Uppsala University



1977-78: Edited play-by-mail magazine: Sauce of the Nile
1977: Designed Waving Hands, a two-player wizard duel game
1978-81: Programmed the world's first MUD, with Roy Trubshaw
1985-2000: Programmed MUD2, the world's most sophisticated MUD
1994: Designed Sopera, a Soap Opera card game
2000: Programmed Freudian slip, a psychological JavaScript game.
2001: Designed Tama Cutie, a mobile phone (SMS) game
2001-2002: Programmed Spunky Princess, SpyMaster, Teenage Daughter's Bedroom and Thugs in Tutus, a suite of JavaScript games.
2002: Programmed The Maze Machine and Haikumatic, a suite of JavaScript games.
2001: Designed SMS Dating, a mobile phone (SMS) game
2002: Designed an unnamed series of mobile phone (SMS) quiz games
2002: Designed SMS Dating extensions
2003: Programmed The Pink Professor Hypertext Game (TPP is a children's cartoon character)
2003: Designed an unnamed multi-player N-Gage game and three series of scenarios
2007-2008: Compiled question sets for Wits and Wagers



1985-2007: MUSE Ltd. (development of on-line computer games)
1994-2016: Sopera Ltd. (licensing of collectible card game)
1995-2000: DragonMedia Ltd. (production of on-line computer games)
2011-present: Lucido Entertainment Ltd. (production of on-line computer games)
2011-2012: Beck and Bartle Ltd. (production of text-based games)


Advisory and Editorial boards:

1998-1999: The Cursor (magazine)
1999-2000: Journal of Virtual Environments (journal)
2001-2003: Arenatek Ltd. (virtual world hosting service)
2001-present: Red Bedlam Ltd. (virtual world developer)
2002-present: The Themis Group (virtual world design, development and operations consultancy)
2003-present: Game Studies (journal)
2004-present: Running Games AS (virtual world developer)
2005-present: Games and Culture (journal)
2007-present: International Journal of Role-Playing (journal)
2007-present: Virtual Worlds Forum (journal)
2013-2014: Amplify (educational software)


Consultancies (long term):

1984-85: British Telecommunications Research Labs
1989-90: British Telecommunications Research Labs
1994-95: Mercury Communications Ltd.
1994-96: Interplay Productions Inc.
1996: Engage Games Online Inc.
1997-98: BTP Ltd.
2000-2002: neo Software Produktions, GmbH.
2006-2010: Metaplace Inc.

Note: due to non-disclosure agreements, the above list is somewhat incomplete.



1985-99: CompuServe Inc.
1985-1991: BT New Information Services
1991-96: On-Line plc.
1992: Access 24 Inc. (Everex)
1992-94: U.S. Videotel. (NVN)
1993-96: Kesmai Aries Ltd. (GEnie)
1994-95: Strategem Online Services Inc. (eWorld)
1994-96: Multi Player Games Network Inc.
1994-96: Interplay Productions Inc.
1996: Engage Games Online Inc.
1997-99: BT Wireplay.
1999-2000: Gameplay plc.
2003-2015: TerraNova


Major Presentations:

1995: Online Entertainment (Blenheim)
1996: Network & Multi-Player Games (IIR)
1997: Internet Games Developers Conference (MPath)
1997: Online Entertainment (Blenheim)
1998: Online Games and Interactive Sports Summit (SMi)
1999: Online Games (SMi)
2000: Online Games (SMi)
2001: Online Games (SMi)
2002: Milia (Cannes, France)
2003: Selfware (Graz, Austria)
2003: State of Play (NYLS, New York, USA) [Keynote]
2004: Comwork (ITU, Copenhagen, Denmark)
2004 State of Play 2 (NYLS, New York, USA)
2005: Digital Money Forum (Consult Hyperion)
2005: Media Technology Industry (KTH, Stockholm, Sweden)
2005: Command Lines (UWM, Milwaukee, USA)
2005: SAGAS (ZKM, Karlsruhe, Germany)
2005: Workshop on Economic Heterogenous Interacting Agents (University of Essex)
2005: Ludium I (IU, Bloomington, USA) [Judge]
2005: State of Play 3 (NYLS, New York, USA)
2005: Digital Identity Forum (Consult Hyperion)
2005: Austin Games Conference (Austin, Texas, USA) [Keynote]
2006: Centre for Study of Financial Innovation
2006: Terra Nova Symposium (NYLS, New York, USA)
2007: Game Focus Germany (Hannover, Germany) [Keynote]
2007: Ludium II (IU, Bloomington, USA) [Joint winner, Chalice of Saethryd]
2007: Independent MMO Game Development Conference (Minneapolis, USA) [Keynote & round table]
2007: GameLab 2007 (University of Oviedo, Spain)
2007: Virtual Worlds Forum Europe 2007 (London) [Advisory board & panel]
2007: The Developing Web (London)
2007: EVE Online Fanfest (Reykjavik, Iceland)
2007: Plus Camerimage (Lodz, Poland)
2008: Independent MMO Game Development Conference (Minneapolis, USA) [Keynote & round table]
2008: Philosophy of Computer Games Conference (Potsdam, Germany) [Keynote & panel]
2008: Workshop on MMORPG Design (College of Mediadesign, University of Applied Science, Berlin)
2008: Nordic Games Conference (Malmö, Sweden) [Panel]
2008: Real Law for Virtual Worlds (Berlin, Germany) [Workshop, closing remarks & panel]
2008: MMOG Fest 08 (University of Staffordshire) [Keynote]
2008: Visual Web Convention (Apply Group) [Chair]
2008: Virtual Policy '08 (the Virtual Policy Network) [In conversation]
2008: Digital Interactive Symposium: Edinburgh (Edinburgh Interactive Festival) [Keynote & panel]
2008: Postgraduate Games Conference (Brunel University) [Keynote]
2008: Ludicrus 08 (Ipswich) [Keynote]
2008: Workshop on AI and Non-Player Characters (University of Essex)
2008: Living Game Worlds IV (Georgia Tech, Atlanta) [Panel]
2009: Computer Games/Players/Game Cultures (University of Magdeburg, Germany) [Keynote]
2009: Independent MMO Game Development Conference (Las Vegas, USA) [Keynote & round table]
2009: Socially Active (University of Essex) [In conversation]
2009: Workshop on Evaluation and Implementation of Human Rights (Council of Europe, Strasbourg) [Panel]
2009: 1st Council of Europe Conference of Ministers responsible for Media and New Communication Services (Reykjavik, Iceland) [Panel]
2009: Facets of Virtual Environments (Berlin, Germany) [Conference Chair] {Workshop}
2009: Games Convention Online (Leipzig, Germany) {Keynote}
Note: The 2009 FaVE and GCO conferences are in {} because although I wrote my presentations, I never delivered them (I had to withdraw following the sudden death of my brother).
2009: DiGRA (Brunel University) [Keynote]
2009: EuroDIG (European Broadcasting Union, Geneva) [Organisation panel]
2009: ENISA-FORTH Summer School on Network and Information Security (Crete, Greece) [Distinguished lecturer]
2010: Kids in Games and Virtual Spaces (Apply Group) [Chair]
2010: Gotland Game Awards (Visby, Sweden) [Presentation, Jury]
2010: Computer Games Online (Leipzig, Germany) [Opening commentary, panel]
2010: Computer Games and Human Rights (Visby, Sweden) [Presentation, televised]
2010: Game Developers Conference Online (Austin, Texas, USA) [Presentation]
2010: BrowserGames Forum 2010 (Offenbach, Germany) [Keynote]
2011: Bristol University Atheist, Agnostic and Secular Society (Bristol) [Invited talk]
2011: Digital Shoreditch Gamification Day (London) [Presentation]
2011: Social Games and Gamification (THUPR, London) [Keynote]
2011: Gamelab 2011 (Barcelona, Spain) [Keynote]
2011: multi.player (Stuttgart, Germany) [Keynote]
2011: Vienna Content Awards (Vienna, Austria) [Keynote]
2011: Interactive Entertainment Summit (London) [Panel]
2012: London Business School Marketing Club (London) [Presentation, panel]
2012: Preservation of Complex Objects Symposia (Cardiff) [Keynote]
2012: Casual Connect (Hamburg, Germany) [Presentation]
2012: Digital Surrey (Guildford) [Presentation]
2012: Virtual Worlds Research Network (Edinburgh) [Keynote]
2012: Gamification Summit (San Franisco, USA) [Presentation]
2012: Club 44, Institute of Practitioners in Advertising (London) [Presentation, panel]
2013: Videogames and Learning Symposium (Glasgow) [Presentation, panel]
2013: Computer Science and Electronic Engineering Conference (Colchester) [Keynote]
2013: International Communication Association Power of Play preconference (London) [Special guest]
2013: Gamification World Congress (Madrid) [Keynote]
2013: The National Museum of Computing Games Weekend (Bletchley) [Invited talk]
2013: GameIS Israeli Game Industry Conference (Tel Aviv) [Keynote]
2014: Casual Connect (Amsterdam, the Netherlands) [Presentation]
2014: GamifIR (Amsterdam, the Netherlands) [Keynote]
2014: GameFounders (Tallinn, Estonia) [Invited talk]
2014: Develop (Brighton) [Co-presentation]
2014: World Humanist Congress (Oxford) [Panel]
2014: multi.player 2 (Münster, Germany) [Closing remarks]
2014: Game-On 2014 (Lincoln) [Keynote]
2014: GameCity 9 (Nottingham) [Keynote & panel]
2014: Cybersalon (London) [Presentation & panel]
2014: Café Scientifique (Colchester) [Invited talk]
2015: University of Kent School of Computing Conference (Canterbury) [Keynote]
2015: Cologne Game Lab (Cologne, Germany) [Invited talk]
2015: Christmas University Challenge (Manchester) [Contestant (winning)]
2016: Ludwig Maximilian University (Munich, Germany) [Invited talk]
2016: Ludwig Maximilian University (Munich, Germany) [Workshop]
2016: Katholische Stiftungsfachhochschule (Munich, Germany) [Invited talk]
2016: Gamefounders (Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia) [Invited talk]
2016: KDA University College (Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia) [Invited talk]
2016: Stockholm University (Stockholm, Sweden) [Distinguished Research Seminar]
2016: DiGRA/FDG Joint Conference (Dundee/Abertay University) [Keynote]
2016: User Acquisition Summit (London) [Keynote]
2016: Sweden Game Conference (Skövde, Sweden) [Keynote]
2016: WordPlay (British Library) [Panel]
2017: TEL-Con (University of Essex) [Keynote, Panel]
2017: Edinburgh International Science Festival [Presentation, Panel]
2017: Gotland Game Conference [Presentation, Jury]
2017: Gamelab 2017 (Barcelona, Spain) [Presentation]
2017: Games Hub (University of Essex) [Presentation]
2018: Into Worlds (Berlin, Germany) [Panel]
2018: Code Europe (Kraków, Poland) [Presentation]
2018: Casual Connect (London) [Keynote]
2018: IEEE Games, Entertainment & Media (Galway, Eire) [Keynote]
2018: Guest Professor Lecture (Visby, Sweden)
2019: Casual Connect (London) [Presentation]
2019: IEEE Conference on Games (London) [Keynote]
2019: Gamelab 2019 (Montevideo, Uruguay) [Keynote]
2019: Game Academy (London) [Invited talk]
2020: Language Resources and Evaluation Conference (online/Marseilles) [Keynote]
2020: Open Knowledge across Research and Entertainment (online) [Panel]
2020: Gamesweek Berlin (online/Berlin) [Keynote]
2020: OKRE Salon (online/London) [Panel]
2020: BBC The Life Project (online/Paris) [Panel]
2020: British Computer Society Edinburgh Branch (online/Edinburgh) [Invited talk]
2021: Into the Metaverse (online) [Interview, Panel]
2021: Enter the Metaverse (online) [Panel]
2022: Tenerife GG (Tenerife, Spain) [Presentation]
2022: Cambridge Wireless International Conference (Cambridge) [Keynote]
2023: Culture at Play (online) [Keynote]
2023: Culture and Video Games (Tenerife, Spain) [Panel]


Academic Offices:

1994-1999: Examiner, Computer Programming and Mathematics for Computing, University of Cambridge Local Examinations Syndicate
2005-2009: External Examiner, Computer Games Technologies, University of Portsmouth
2009-2013: External Examiner, MA Digital Games, Brunel University
2014-2019: External Examiner, BA Digital Games, Falmouth University
2014-2018: External Examiner, BSc Games Computing, Lincoln University


Major Academic Publications:

1984: Cross-Level Planning
European Conference on Artificial Intelligence, Pisa
1985: MUD Advanced Project Report
Dept. Computer Science, Essex University
1988: Cross-Level Planning
PhD Thesis, Essex University
1990: Interactive, Multi-User Computer Games
BT Martlesham Research Laboratories
1996: Hearts, Clubs, Diamonds Spades: Players who Suit MUDs
Journal of MUD Research
Also in:
Developing Online Games
Jessica Mulligan & Bridgette Patrovsky, 2003
New Riders, Indianapolis
and: The Game Design Reader
Katie Salen & Eric Zimmerman, 2005
MIT Press
2005: Virtual Worldliness: What the Imaginary Asks of the Real
NYLS, New York, USA Law Review, v50 (1)
2005: Virtual Worlds: Why People Play
Massively Multiplayer Game Development 2
Thor Alexander (ed.)
Charles River Media, Hingham MA
2007: Presence and Flow: Ill-Fitting Clothes for Virtual Worlds
Techné: Research in Philosophy and Technology volume 10:3
2007: Making Places
Space, Time, Play. Computer Games, Architecture and Urbanism: the Next Level
Friedrich von Borries, Steffen P. Walz and Matthias Böttger(eds.)
Birkhäuser Verlag
2009: Alice and Dorothy Play Together
Third Person
Pat Harrigan and Noah Wardruip-Fruin (eds.)
MIT Press
2009: Understanding the Limits of Theory
Beyond Game Design: Nine Steps to Creating Better Videogames
Chris Bateman (ed.)
2010: From MUDs to MMORPGs: The History of Virtual Worlds
International Handbook of Internet Research
Jeremy Hunsinger, Lisbeth Klastrup and Matthew Allen (eds.)
2011: Unrealistic Expectations
Ring Bearers: The Lord of the Rings Online as Intertextual Narrative
Tanya Krzywinska, Esther MacCallum and Justin Parsler (eds.)
Manchester University Press
2012: MMO Morality
Computer Games and New Media Cultures: a Handbook of Digital Games Studies
Johannes Fromme and Alexander Unger (eds.)
2013: The Decline of MMOs
International Conference: New Directions in the Development of Creative and Media Industries, Hong Kong
2013: Design Principles: Use and Misuse
Multiplayer: The Social Aspects of Digital Gaming
Thorsten Quandt and Sonja Kröger (eds.)
2013: Archaeology versus Anthropology: What can Truly be Preserved?
Preserving Complex Digital Objects
Janet Delve and David Anderson (eds.)
2015: Special Issue Issues
Psychology of Popular Media Culture v4(4), 259-276
2017: The Decline of MMOs
Global Game Industries and Cultural Policies
Anthony Fung (ed.)
Palgrave Global Media Policy and Business Series


Major Book Publications:

1978: The Solo Dungeon (game)
Games Publications, Birmingham
1985: Artificial Intelligence and Computer Games (book)
Century Communications, London
2003: Designing Virtual Worlds (book)
New Riders, Indianapolis
2016: MMOs from the Inside Out (book)
Apress, New York
2016: MMOs from the Outside In (book)
Apress, New York
2022: How to Be a God (book)
NotByUS, Colchester


Magazine Publications:

1983: A Voice from the Dungeon, Practical Computing
1984: AI and Computer Games, Personal Computing Today
1984-85: Regular column in Micro Adventurer
Sunshine Publications
1985: Stuck in the MUD, Your Commodore
1985: Glorious MUD, Practical Computing
1987-89: Regular column in Adventurer's Club Dossier
Adventurer's Club
1990: Problems in the MUD, Organisation Against Sexism in Software
1990: Who Plays MUAs?, Comms Plus!
2006: I was Young and I Needed the Money, The Escapist
2006: Out of this World, Financial World


Other Professional Publications:

1992: MUDspeke Words and Phrases, MUSE Ltd.
1993: The Wiz Biz Book, MUSE Ltd.
1995: The Blank Book, MUSE Ltd.
2004: The Pitfalls of Virtual Property, Themis Group
2004: MUDs in Encyclopedia of Human-Computer Interaction, Berkshire Publishing
2008: Virtual Worlds, Real Money, European Network and Information Security Agency (Contributor)

Copyright © Richard A. Bartle (
14th July :\webdes~1\ cv.htm